The petroleum industry in the region includes the processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing petroleum products.
The largest volume products of the industry are fuel oil and gasoline (petrol). Petroleum (oil) is also the raw material for many chemical products, including pharmaceuticals, solvents, fertilisers, pesticides, and plastics. The industry is usually divided into three major components: upstream, midstream and downstream. Midstream operations are usually included in the downstream category.